Born in Pochlarn in Austria. Expressionist painter, printmaker, author. Mainly active in Vienna, received Czechoslovakian citizenship in 1937, and British citizenship in 1947. Held his first one-man show in 1910, and the same year published illustrations in the Berlin avant-garde magazine, Der Sturm. Taught at the Academy in Dresden from 1919 to 1924, and traveled throughout Europe and the Middle East, creating a large number of landscape paintings. He returned to Vienna in 1931, but then publicly spoke out against the Nazis, fleeing first to Prague in 1934, and then to London 10 1939. His fame grew internationally during this period. Lived mainly in Villeneuve in Switzerland after 1953. Painted landscapes and portraits in his late period, with many important works on allegorical or mythical themes. Kokoschka was not swayed by modern art movements but rather displayed a highly individualistic, imaginative form of Expressionism before 1914.